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Comment: Migrated to Confluence 5.3

These examples demonstrate the use of the biomarkerFor and prognosticBiomarkerFor relationships to represent information about biomarkers in BEL Statements.


The biomarkerFor relationship represents the known use of an abundance or process as a marker for a biological process or pathology.

Code Block
SET Citation = {"PubMed", "Cell Struct Funct. 1997 Feb;22(1):103-16.", "9113396"}
SET Species = "9606"
SET Evidence = "Desmin, the muscle-specific member of the intermediate filament (IF)
 family, is one of the earliest known myogenic markers in both skeletal muscle and heart."
SET CardiovascularSystem = "Heart"

# disambiguation Desmin = DES

p(HGNC:DES) biomarkerFor bp(GO:"cardioblast differentiation")

CLEAR CardiovascularSystem
SET Tissue = "Muscle, Skeletal"
p(HGNC:DES) biomarkerFor bp(GO:"skeletal muscle tissue development")

These statements indicate that DES is a biomarker for the GO biological processes 'cardioblast differentiation' in heart and 'skeletal muscle tissue development' in skeletal muscle.


Because 'CardiovascularSystem' and 'Tissue' are different Annotation Types, the 'CardiovascularSystem' Annotation must be explicitly cleared so it does not apply to the second statement. Both Annotation Types and their allowed values must be defined in the BEL Document header.

Prognostic biomarkers

The prognosticBiomarkerFor relationship represents the use of an abundance or process as a biomarker for the future development of pathology in an individual disease case.

Code Block
SET Citation = {"PubMed", "Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010 Jul 3(7) 800-9",  "20570883"}

SET Evidence = "Our data indicate that an increased EGFR gene copy number
 is common in and associated with OSCC development in patients with OPLs
 expressing high EGFR, particularly OSCC developing at the site of a
 high-expression OPL"

# disambiguation OSCC = oral squamous cell carcinoma
# disambiguation OPL = oral pre-malignant lesion
SET BodyRegion = Mouth
g(HGNC:EGFR) prognosticBiomarkerFor path(MESHD:"Carcinoma, Squamous Cell")

This statement indicates that abundance of the EGFR gene (gene copy number) is a prognostic biomarker that predicts the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.